Thursday, May 21, 2020

Women’s Rights in the 1930s in the United States

In the 1930s, women’s equality was not as flashy an issue as in some previous and subsequent eras. The decade did, however, bring slow and steady progress, even as new challenges—especially economic and cultural ones—emerged that actually reversed some earlier advances. Context: Womens Roles in 1900–1929 Women in the first decades of the 20th century saw an increased opportunity and public presence, including a strong role in union organizing. During World War I, many women whod been stay-at-home mothers and wives entered the workforce for the first time. Women activists agitated for more than the vote, which was finally won in 1920, but also for workplace fairness and safety, minimum wages, and the abolition of child labor. African American women became central to the cultural flowering of the Harlem Renaissance that followed World War I. In many urban black communities, these same courageous women were also standing up for equal rights and beginning the long fight to end the horrific practice of lynching. During the Roaring Twenties, information on contraceptives became increasingly widespread, allowing women the freedom to engage in sexual activity without the often inevitable consequences of pregnancy. Other factors that led to greater sexual freedom included more relaxed clothing styles and societal attitudes that were less restrictive. 1930s—The Great Depression Minnesota Historical Society/Getty Images While the new phenomenon of the airplane drew some elite women, including Ruth Nichols, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, Beryl Markham, and Amelia Earhart (whose career spanned the late 1920s through 1937 when she and her navigator were lost over the Pacific) to become pilots, with the 1929 market crash and the onset of the Great Depression, for most women, the cultural pendulum swung backward.   With fewer jobs available, employers generally preferred to award those they had to men whod traditionally worn the mantle of the family breadwinner. As fewer and fewer women were able to find employment, the societal ideals that had embraced increasing female freedoms did an about-face. Domesticity, motherhood, and homemaking once again became regarded as the only truly proper and fulfilling roles for women. But some women still needed to work, and work they did. While the economy was losing some jobs, in newer fields, such as the radio and telephone industries, job opportunities for women were actually expanding. One of the main reasons women were hired for many of these new jobs that resulted from emerging technology was that they could be paid considerably less than men (and often still are). Again, the wage gap was justified by the stereotype of the male breadwinner needing earnings that would support not just himself, but a traditional family—whether he was married or not. Another place where women were thriving in the workplace was the growing film industry whose ranks included many powerful female stars. Ironically, even as many female stars hauled in hefty salaries and outearned their male co-stars, the majority of 1930s film fare consisted of movies aimed at selling the idea that a woman’s place was in the home. Even those onscreen characters who were strong, charismatic career women usually gave it all up for the love, marriage, and the husband that were requisite for a traditional Hollywood happy ending—or were punished for not doing so. The New Deal When Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president in 1932, working men and women were still reeling from the effects of the Great Depression. Under Roosevelts influence, a 1938 key women’s rights and labor rights decision by the Supreme Court, West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish, found that minimum wage legislation was constitutional. Along with his progressive policies, Roosevelt also brought a new breed of First Lady, in the person of Eleanor Roosevelt, to the White House. Thanks to an assertive, capable, and active personality paired with an impressive intellect, former settlement house worker Eleanor Roosevelt was more than just a helpmate to her husband. While Eleanor Roosevelt did provide stalwart support with regard to FDRs physical limitations (he suffered lingering effects of his bout with polio), she was also a very visible and vocal part of her husbands administration. Eleanor Roosevelt and the remarkable circle of women with which she surrounded herself took on active and important public roles that likely would not have been possible had another candidate been in office. Women in Government and the Workplace Arrival of American Mission in Rotterdam on board SS Noordam for the Peace Congress at the Hague. Jane Adams is in the center. Bettmann/Getty Images   The issue of women’s rights was less dramatic and widespread in the 1930s than it had been at the height of earlier suffrage battles—or would be again during the subsequent second-wave feminism of the 1960s and 1970s.  Still, some very prominent women affected big changes through government organizations at the time. Florence Kelley, active in the first three decades of the century, was a mentor to many of the women who were activists in the 1930s.  She died in 1932.When she was appointed to be Secretary of Labor by Franklin D. Roosevelt in his first year in office, Frances Perkins became the first woman cabinet official. She served until 1945.  Historically referenced as the woman behind the New Deal,  Perkins was a major force in the creation of the social safety net that included unemployment insurance, minimum wage laws, and the Social Security system.Molly Dewson worked with refugees during World War I and then went on to focus her efforts on labor reform. She championed minimum wage laws for women and children, as well as limiting working hours for women and children to a 48-hour week.  Dewson was an advocate for women working in the Democratic Party and became an ambassador for The New Deal.  Jane Addams continued her Hull House project in the ’30s, serving the poor and im migrant population in Chicago.  Other settlement houses, which were often led by women, also helped provide necessary social services during the Great Depression.  Grace Abbott, who had been head of the Children’s Bureau in the 1920s, taught at the University of Chicago’s School of Social Service Administration in the 1930s, where her sister, Edith Abbot, served as dean.  Abbott was a U.S. delegate to the International Labor Organization in 1935 and 1937.Mary McLeod Bethune had served on Presidential commissions under Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover but had a larger role in FDRs administration. Bethune often spoke alongside Eleanor Roosevelt, who became a friend, and she was part of FDR’s â€Å"kitchen cabinet,† advising him on matters involving African Americans. She was involved with establishing the Federal Committee on Fair Employment Practice which worked to end exclusion and wage discrimination for African Americans in the defense industry. From 1936 to 1944, she headed the Division of Negro Affairs within the National Youth Administration.  Bethune also helped bring together several black women’s organizations into the National Council of Negro Women, for which she served as president from 1935 to 1949.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Slave Oppression - 3341 Words

Slave Oppression During the 19th century, slavery was an extremely dehumanizing period. The complete control over another human being’s life brought many hardships and disappointments. Families were separated and, for African-Americans, the slave era was extremely depressing. Slaves were often beaten, or killed for the simple incompletion of a task. Women had no rights and were used for cooking, for cleaning, and for the creation and nurturing of babies. There were often instances of lynching and burnings of African-Americans simply because of their skin color. Slavery is uniquely American because it plays a major role of the formation of The United States today. During this time period, slave masters had the complete control over a†¦show more content†¦Mr. Norton is putting pressure on the Invisible Man by explaining the significance of the Invisible Man’s success. Ralph Ellison uses the IM to demonstrate the difficulty of equal treatment, even though the IM is a college stude nt. There is no leniency or respect for the Invisible Man because he is African American. The IM experiences many struggles, but Ernest Gaines demonstrated the same idea of struggle in The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. Similar to the IM, Jane Pittman faces the struggle of freedom when the Proclamation was passed freeing slaves. Unc Isom, a man that is considered an advisor to the other slaves on the plantation. He asks, â€Å"What’s we to do?†(Gaines 13) as a result of the blacks not knowing how to live a life of freedom. Jane Pittman attempts to go to Ohio with Ned, but she soon realizes they did not have anywhere to stay, nor was she able to provide for Ned or herself. As a result, she decides to stay at the plantation. Earnest Gaines is demonstrating the immediate struggle of free African Americans because they do not know how to operate outside of an oppressive society as he â€Å"becomes increasingly concerned with black history and black community† (Hicks). He uses Unc Isom early in the book to capture the reader’s attention to the robotic mindset the blacks carry. Unc Isom is a man in his eighty’s that knew only the life of a slave. He is trapped in the sla ve mentalityShow MoreRelatedAmerican South And German Imperialism Essay1257 Words   |  6 Pageswere considered free, after abolition, they were not. After the Civil War, the government created alternatives to free labor. The first choice was previous slaves becoming farmers, who were internally colonized. Sharecropping was another idea, where the farmers had to sign contracts. They were voluntarily oppressing themselves. Previous slaves were free in the sense that they were able to choose who oppressed them. This idea was similar in Germany, where the Polish had to sign contracts and pay mortgageRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Simultaneity Of Oppression 1364 Words   |  6 PagesMidterm Response Discuss and critically analyze the â€Å"simultaneity of oppression† if one group is oppressed, can anybody be free? In the schematic hierarchy of race and sex, is the dominant group â€Å"free,† at the expense of the oppressed groups, or unfree, even if materially empowered? Does it make sense to argue that â€Å"white women† are freer, or less free, than â€Å"black men†? The concept of the â€Å"simultaneity of oppression† is relatively unknown, even within today’s modern society. While there are surelyRead MoreThe Charity Bowery By Lydia Maria Child1650 Words   |  7 PagesAlthough slaves were able to obtain religious agency, they were still oppressed due to the different kinds of abuse they experienced such as emotional abuse. In Charity Bowery by Lydia Maria Child, Child is retelling a story of an aged colored woman, Charity Bowery, from New York. In Bowery’s story she says, â€Å"Sixteen children I’ve had, first and last; and twelve I’ve nursed for my mistress. From the time my first baby was born, I always set my heart upon buying freedom for some of my children. IRead MoreEssay Acquiescence: Employment and School Schedule1146 Words   |  5 PagesAcquiescence In Martin Luther King Jr.’s â€Å"Three Ways of Meeting Oppression† Dr. King gives us three ways in which oppressed people such as African Americans dealt with their oppression. The first one is acquiescence in which individuals let themselves get dragged into their own oppression. If one accepts their oppression it simply means that they are proving to the oppressor that one is inferior. The second way that oppression is dealt with is violence. Violence does not solve any issues withinRead MoreThe Handmaid s Tale By Margaret Atwood1256 Words   |  6 PagesOpressing The Opressed From the days of the cavemen to now, societies have systematically oppressed people for various reasons. Oppression has happened to Jews in Germany, slaves during Christopher Columbus’s days, slaves in the early 1900s in America, etc. When people systematically oppress one another, it leads to internal oppression of the oppressed. This is evident in Margaret Atwood’s book, The Handmaid’s Tale. This dystopian fiction book is about a young girl, Offred, who lives in Gilead, aRead MoreNon-Violent Resistance: The Stoppable Ways982 Words   |  4 Pagesthat we were born into different lifestyles yet we do not know much about ourselves, especially how we, oppressed people, can deal things in a non-violent resistance. According to Martin Luther King’s Three Ways of Meeting Oppression, he reveals how we can deal with our oppression in three characteristic ways – non-violent resistance, violent resistance and acquiescence. He believes that these three ways are indispensable, which he must organize himself into a militant, nonviolent and mass movementRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Band Played On 1261 Words   |  6 Pagescommunity experienced, the plight of the medical community in investigating the disease and the issue of government response to it. The movie contains various forms of oppression, especially to the gay community. The US government did not support the gay community and, as a result, AIDs was associated with them which brought about oppression against sexual orientation (Curran, 56). When AIDs has discovered the gay community suffered at the hands of social alienation, the name AIDs singled out the gay communityRead MoreOvercoming Oppression and Exploitation - Langston Hughes Poems and James Camerons Avatar1566 Words   |  7 PagesOppression and exploitation has been present in our world as far back as one can remember. The dictionary definition states that ‘Oppression is the exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel, or unjust manner. It can also be defined as an act or instance of oppressing, the state of being oppressed, and the feeling of being heavily burdened, mentally or physically, by troubles, adverse conditions, and anxiety.’ People who feel oppressed can react in very diverse and opposing ways. SomeRead MoreAnalysis Of The Film The Novel Fat Girl 1405 Words   |  6 Pageswomen exist on earth to serve man’s needs, whether sexual, social, marital, or domestic. Being a man, that is â€Å"having a penis is certainly a privileged† (Beauvoir 294). Considering that women are suppo sed to represent the Other, a sexual object and slave of sorts, they are all supposed to conform to societal expectations, just as men do when they assert their right to dominate women (Beauvoir 440). However, strong female characters like Anaà ¯s contradict these expectations. They refuse to be raped,Read MoreTheu.s. Bernard s Lecture Notes, And Class Discussions952 Words   |  4 Pagesutterance by saying â€Å"go back to Africa†, â€Å"hanga bongo†, â€Å"go back to living in the hut† etc., these are hurtful and deeming comments coming from another black towards another black. My feeling was that they were using us as a scapegoat to hide their own oppression and boost their own loss of power to dominant group. Petersen (2006) exemplified this situation when Krissy distanced herself from her classmate with learning disability similar to herself, but she became ignorant of her own learning disability

Database Visual Querying Free Essays

Based on Claudio Cerullo and Marco Porta visual approaches is a system use to have correct query formulations in computer operations. Cerullo and Porta noted that the inherently linear structure of SQL (Structured Query Language) sometimes hinder correct query formulation so visual approaches were developed â€Å"to take advantage of the greater bandwidth of the human vision channel† (Cerullo Porta 2007, p. 1). We will write a custom essay sample on Database Visual Querying or any similar topic only for you Order Now While visual approaches are prominent both in the airline industry and the military, however, Cerullo and Porta introduces visual approaches as a better way of graphically building queries by composing Graph SQL elements. Cerullo and Porta stated, â€Å"The spatial arrangement of graphic objects can in fact highlight the structure of queries, providing a global outlook which can rarely be obtained with a textual description† (p. 1). Speaking of the visual approach in the computer use, Reese (1999) stated, â€Å"The visual approach can give you a sense of actually using the program (p. 41). The visual approaches therefore which was affirmed by Cerullo and Porta as useful for both inexperienced and experts users for understanding the basics of relational database interaction, and for defining complex interrelations among sub queries in visual manner, is very important as it also provides answer to the problem posed by the strict syntax use to construct request which lead to a non ambiguous semantic. Jaco and Stephanidis pointed out that their disadvantages â€Å"is the training needed for their use making them in adequate for end users who are not database or GIs experts† (p. 964). The asserted that Visual approaches â€Å"offer an easy and intuitive mean for spatial configuration expression† (p. 964) Reference Cerullo, C. Porta, M. (2007) A System for Database Visual Querying and Query Visualization: Complementing Text and Graphics to Increase Expressiveness IEEE Computer Society Jacko, J. A. Stephanidis, C. (2003) Human-Computer Interaction New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Inc. Reese, J. (999) Internet Books for Educators, Parents, and Students USA: Libraries Unlimited How to cite Database Visual Querying, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Of mice and Men Essays (729 words) - English-language Films

Of Mice and Men takes place in the 1930?s in America during the Great Depression. Before the Great Depression America was known as the land of opportunities the place where all could find their American Dream, but now the American dream is vanished, and the ideal land has become the land of misfortune. The Great Depression was a worldwide economic recession that led to numerous bank failures, high-unemployment, as well as dramatic drops in industrial production, and stock market share prices. The book ?Of Mice and Men? shows the harsh reality of the American Dream in the Great Depression. The two main characters are best friends, George Milton and Lennie Small who are poor homeless migrant workers, doomed to a life of wandering and labor in which they are never able to gain the fruits of their labor and are on the run looking for a job. George is a "small and quick," man, who may sometimes seem like he hates Lennie and doesn?t like his company, but really he is very devoted to him. Lennie is "a huge man," who is somewhat mentally retarded, and worships George's every word. Their main goal in life is to "get the jack together," purchase a few acres of land they can call their own, "an' live off the fatta the lan'.? This is their dream and their dream, however, cannot exist without friendship. The constant repetition of the way things will be is what keeps the dream alive in Lennie. George needs Lennie just as much as Lennie needs him; how else could George keep the dream alive, but at the end of the novel George seems to lose sight of his dream. When George kills Lennie at the end of the novel to save Lennie from the torture he would endure, he also kills the friendship, the light of their American Dream. George Steinbeck doesn?t stop there when portraying the ways in which the characters of the book cannot achieve their ?American Dream?, all the characters have a dream, and wish to change their lives in some fashion; but none are capable of doing so. Curley's wife longs to experience the world for herself. She is a prisoner in her own home, powerless to change her fate. She has already had her dream of being an actress pass her by and now must live a life of empty hope after her marriage with Curley, who doesn't love her. Through Crooks, Steinbeck exposes the bitterness, the anger, and the helplessness of the black American who struggles to be recognized as a human being, instead being stuck as a lower person in the eyes of a racist America. All he wants is to be let alone, and have a place of his own. The color of skin does not spare anyone in the fall of the American Dream all share the despair of wanting to change the way they live and attain something better. Even Slim, despite his wisdom and confidence, has nothing to call his own. He will remain a migrant worker until his death. Slim is different from the others in the fact that he does not seem to over-expect. He is not beaten by a dream because unlike the others he doesn?t set his sights on a dream; he seems to have reached the sad conclusion that to dream leads to despair. Candy, who has lost his hand, dreams of a place, which he can call his own. He wants somewhere he can live a quiet life all his own. He tries to achieve this with his saved earnings, doing a bit of kitchen work and gardening, but yet again, he is a victim of his unfulfilled dream. Dreams are a significant theme in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men. Nevertheless, the dream is never fulfilled, and the characters who have counted on it are the ones who are the most devastated. Slim's comfort at the end "You hadda George", indicates the sad truth that one has to surrender one's dreams in order to survive, which is not the easiest thing to do in America, the Land of Promise. Steinbeck doesn?t believe that at anyone could really reach and succeed their ?American Dream?,

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Role of Media

Role of Media Media PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 2Running Head: ROLE OF MEDIARole of MediaRole of MediaDifferent countries have different regulations and laws. In China, the media are under the control of government and serve for the government. They are called government's 'throats' and 'tones', which means media speak for the government. It is still a long way to go for Chinese media to realize the media public sphere. In western countries, the media system seems more democratic.On one hand the media reports will find out the problems in the society, give advises to the governments and help the governments make progress in order to provide for the citizens better services. In this sense, the media are tools for the public to benefit themselves. On the other hand, media have to be influenced by the governmental activities so that media become the ruling methods of the governments.English: A Taiwan television news program simulati...Economic factor also influences the contents of media. Audiences do have needs from media. The media programs have to concern audience needs if they want to earn profits. The media must "respond in a competitive market-place to what people want, and express their views and interests" (Curran, 2000: p.129). As a result, the privately owned broadcasting system speaks for people (Curran, 2000). The state-owned media has less pressure from the market because a large amount of their economic supports are from the governments. Almost all the traditional media in China are owned by the government so they speak for the government. However, a new regulation that aimed at bringing the industry in line with a shift towards a free market economy was put in place in China at the end of 2003 that the newspapers "must be financially independent from central government" (BBC News Online, 2003, ref 3).

Monday, March 2, 2020

Missing Information in MLA Referencing

Missing Information in MLA Referencing Missing Information in MLA Referencing There are few things more frustrating when writing a college paper than finding a great source, but then being unable to find the publication details. Don’t worry, though! You can still cite a source with missing information. In this post, for example, we will look how to handle missing information in MLA citations and the list. Sources Without a Named Author When a source has no named author, you can use the source title in citations instead. For example, to cite an article with no named author, we might write: Many predicted that 2012 would be the end of the world, but this proved premature (â€Å"Apocalypses Through History† 12). Here, for example, the citation is for page 12 of an article called â€Å"Apocalypses Through History.† If the source title is too long, moreover, you can shorten it to fit in citations. The same rule applies in the list, so use the source title in the first position there if no author is named. However, make sure to check carefully for an author. Typically, there will at least be a corporate author to cite. This will be the organization responsible for producing the source you are citing. In-Text Citations Without Page Numbers Some sources have no page numbers to cite (e.g., websites and ebooks). When this happens, MLA recommends using paragraph or line numbers instead if these are available: Page numbers are a thing of the past (Smith par. 12). This citation, for instance, would point to paragraph 12 in a source. However, if the source does not include its own paragraph or line numbers, simply leave this information out of citations. Other Missing Information in the List Finally, we have the list. This is where you give full source information. If you cannot find certain details, however, you will need to adapt your reference accordingly. The MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition. The MLA Handbook does not have strict guidelines about how to handle missing information in the list other than using the title when there is no named author (see above). Generally, then, if you cannot find a piece of information within a source (e.g., place of publication or publication date), you can skip this and move on to the next detail. However, the MLA Handbook does say you can include source information from an external source such as a database or publisher’s website. To do this, simply place the information in question in square brackets. Your teacher or supervisor may also have preferences about how to approach missing information in MLA style references. For example, some suggest using â€Å"n.d.† to indicate a missing date of publication, so remember to check your style guide if you have one available. Summary: Missing Information in MLA Referencing If you cannot find information about a source you have cited, MLA recommends the following: When a source has no named author or suitable organizational author, use the title instead. This applies to both citations and the list. When a source has no page numbers, leave these out of citations. You can use paragraph or line numbers if these are included in the source itself. For other missing information in the list, if it is available from a third party, include it in square brackets. If not, skip the detail in question. And if you want help checking yours referencing, get in touch with Proofed.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Cosco Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cosco - Case Study Example al., 2008, p. C-3). While this business model has been entirely successful thus far, the provision of limited choices can be problematic in the long-term. With globalization consumers are increasingly confronted with a variety of choices. Therefore shopping in an environment with limited choices may go against what modern consumers have come to expect and prefer. Costco’s business model has nevertheless been successful so far. For example in 2006, total sales in Costco’s 496 stores worldwide amounted to US$ 59 billion. Membership included 26 million private members and 5.2 million business members which amounted to US$1.2 billion in fees for Costco membership. Each of Costco’s stores realize sales each year at an average of US$128 million while its closest competitor Sam’s Club realizes only US$67 million annually (Thompson, et. al., 2008). However, since Costco and Sam’s Club are based on the same business model, the disparity in sales might be a m atter of concern. Costco can expect that at some stage Sam’s Club will attempt to take some of Costco’s market shares and the sales’ positions can be reversed. ... For example, operating costs increased progressively from US$1,037 million in 2000 to US$1,626 in 2006. However, net sales and membership fees together increased from US$32,164 million in 2000 to US$60,151 million in 2006 showing progressive increases from year to year. At the end of 2000, Costco had 313 stores operating worldwide and by the end of 2006, Costco had 458 stores. Membership has also followed a similar pattern, increasing each year from 2000-2006 (Thompson, et. al., 2008). Although membership is a big part of the business model it is a more significant marketing strategy and will be critiqued in the next section. The successful business model of offering quality goods at low prices is enabled by the warehouse membership set-up. By taking this approach, Costco is able to save the cost involved in in-store decorum and in-store customer service. In fact, Costco’s various warehouses typically display bare cement floors and shopping is designed like a â€Å"treasure h unt† experience (Thompson, et. al., 2008, p. C-6). Moreover, Costco offers limited products in volumes to lower the cost of inventory and floor management. For example, a typical supermarket or supercenter such as Wal-Mart or SuperTarget will offer between 40, 000 and 150,000 items while Costco offers only 4,000 items (Thompson, et. al., 2008). Thus far, Costco’s business model has been successful, however increasing competition indicates that Costco might have to consider revamping its business model. For instance, Costco’s largest business rival, Sam’s Club and BJ’s both use a similar business model. Both Sam’s Club and BJ’s have similar in-store lay-outs, offer about 4,000 items and feature the treasure hunt experience in which luxury goods are available at lower